The art of nursing is the practical knowledge which tells how to work to produce certain results; the other meaning is to develop the hands-on skills of nurses. The science of nursing is the body of knowledge based on many laws and principles of biological and physical nature as well as social and behavioral sciences. Nursing as a service requires a broad education. Professional nursing is a service devoted to the promotion of human social welfare. Nursing helps to attain this objective by giving care to the sick and injured, promoting and restoring health and preventing disease.
After the 20 th century nursing has undergone tremendous changes and developments. A broader and more varied field of work has been opened for nurses recently with greater opportunities for higher studies. Moreover, current nursing professionals are exposed to national and international professional contacts which lead to experience that are applicable worldwide. Specialty areas such as critical care, operating theater, emergency, urology, and paediatric advanced training are included in the profession. Furthermore, novel intellectual practices including but not limited to nursing research, evidence based nursing, nursing process, nursing audit, and quality nursing are also experienced.